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Role Of Sperm And Semen In Human Reproduction

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Sperm and semen are generally misinterpreted as the same thing. Sperms are actually the sex cells, whereas semen is the whitish viscous fluid, in which sperms are located. They perform different task and important for reproduction.

Production of Sperm:

Sperm is the small and motile male reproductive cells, which merge with the female fertile egg to reproduce. Human sperm cell is haploid, which means it has half number of chromosomes as compared to other cells.

Presence of flagellum makes these sperms motile. It is produced in the testis and take months to mature. These sperms are produced in large number which increases the chances of fertilizing an egg. During fertilization the nucleus of sperm fuses with the nucleus of oocyte, a large female reproductive cells and forma new organism.

Structure of Sperm:

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Sperm is made up of three primary regions which are head, mid piece, and a tail. Genetic components are present in the head and it is designed in a manner to penetrate the female egg. Mid piece allow the energy production and acts as a home to organelles. Tail is responsible for locomotion, which is an important characteristic and gives the way to viscous semen.

Multi cellular protist, bryophyte plants, and the seedless vascular plants produce motile sperms which require water to swim to the oocyte. In gymnosperm and angiosperm water is not required for motility of sperm as they are carried to the female reproductive part by pollen grains. In conifers and angiosperms sperms are carried to the female reproductive parts by the growing pollen tube.

How Fertilization occurs?

At the time of fertilization nucleus and other content of the sperm are drawn into the cytoplasm of the oocyte. The mitochondria in the sperm are destroyed and do not survive in the zygote.

Mitochondria contain its own DNA and have the ability to reproduce. Mitochondrial DNA in humans thus inherited from mother only. More than 100 million sperms are present in a single ejaculation, but only one fertilizes with the oocyte.


Semen or seminal fluid is produced by the seminal vesicles located in the pelvic region of men. Sperms and semen both conjoin later to form a matter of reproduction. Semen is required to keep the sperm viable.

Composition of semen varies on the basis of its source from where it is obtained and the biological and lifestyle factors of the men. The semen is composed of amino acid, fructose, enzymes, proteins, vitamin C, and minerals. This mixture generally forms 65 to 75% of the seminal volume.

The rest part is made up of three different parts. The first part is the semen cells which forms 2 to 5% of the total volume. About 25 % are made up of acidic mixture and includes citric acid, zinc and acid phosphates. Less than 1% of semen is composed of secretion of bulbourethral glands including galactose and mucus which serves the purpose of sperm motility. .

During ejaculation the liquid from the seminal vesicles and prostate glands dilutes the sperm and provide an alkaline environment to the sperm.

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